Current Issues of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

Assessment of noggin level in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients

Curr Issues Pharm Med Sci., Vol. 31, No. 3, 122-130

Khama'al Hussein Abod Al-Khafaji1, Mohammed Noori Al-Dujaili2
Arshad Noori Ghani Al-Dujaili3

Physiology and Pharmacology Branch, College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq
Faculty of Medicine, University of Kufa, Iraq
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq

DOI: 10.1515/cipms-2018-0024


Background and Objective. Noggin (NOG) is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, muscles, and bones. The NOG protein plays a role in germ layer-specific derivation of specialized cells. Via NOG, the formation of neural tissues, the notochord, hair follicles, and eye structures arise from the ectoderm germ layer, while noggin activity in the mesoderm gives way to the formation of cartilage, bone and muscle growth. In the endoderm, NOG is involved 
in the development of the lungs.
NOG dimerizes by a core body, while two pairs of strands extend from it preceding by an N-terminal segment (called a clip segment) with approximately 20 amino acids. This clip twists around the BMP ligand and obstructs the growth factor surfaces from binding to both BMP receptors type I and type II. NOG binding to some BMPs inhibits these from combining and thus activating receptors of BMP, therefore, blocking non-Smad and Smad-dependent signaling. 
The anti-proliferative noggin has particular effects in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) that are exposed to specifically down regulated hypoxia. This occurs together with the BMP4 up-regulation levels of protein, and this imbalance between NOG and BMP4 consequence results in the activation and development of PAH disease. 
Our study consists of numerous examinations so as to explore new biomarkers in order to determine onset of PAH, and to discover the relationship between NOG serum level and gender, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), smoking, types of PAH primaries and secondaries, as well as their grade.


Noggin, pulmonary arterial hypertension, left heart disease.


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