Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations
Curr Issues Pharm Med Sci., Vol. 27, No. 3, Pages 187- 194
Musiliu O. Adedokun1, John O. Ayorinde2, Michael A. Odeniyi2*
1 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p >0.05) exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.
Eucalyptus gum, binding agent, compression properties, drug release
- Adedokun M. O., Itiola O. A.: Material properties and compaction characteristics of natural and pregelatinized forms of four starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79, 818, 2010.
- Adeleye A. O., Odeniyi M.A., Jaiyeoba K. T.: The influence of cissus gum on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets – a factorial analysis. J. Basic Appl. Pharm. Sci., 31(2), 131, 2010.
- Adeleye A. O., Odeniyi M.A., Jaiyeoba K. T.: Evaluation of cissus gum as binder in a paracetamol tablet formulation. Farmacia, 59(1), 85, 2011.
- Adetogun G. E., Alebiowu G.: Properties of delonix regia seed gum as a novel tablet binder. Acta Pol. Pharm. Res., 66(4), 433, 2009.
- Adetunji O. A., Odeniyi M. A., Itiola O. A.: Compression, mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate tablets containing corn and trifoliate yam starches as binders. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 5(2), 589, 2006.
- Adeyemi M. O., Pilpel N.: The packing characteristics of physical and formulated mixtures of oxytetracycline and lactose powders. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 39(9), 734, 1987.
- Alebiowu G., Itiola O.A.: Compressional characteristics of native and pregelatinized sorghum, plantain and corn starches, and the mechanical properties of their tablets. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 28(6), 663, 2002.
- Ayorinde J. O., Odeniyi M. A.: Evaluation of the suspending properties of a new plant gum in sulphamethoxazole formulations. Int. J. Pharmacol. Pharm. Tech., 1(2), 47, 2012.
- Ayorinde J. O., Itiola O. A., Odeniyi M. A.: Effects of excipients and formulation types on compressional properties of diclofenac. Acta Pol. Pharm. Res., 70(3), 557, 2013.
- Ayorinde, J. O., Itiola, O. A.: Individual and interacting effects of formulation variables on the tensile strength and microbial survival in diclofenac tablets. Arch. Pharmacal Res., 33(3), 395 (2010).
- Caramella C., et al.: Disintegrants in solid dosage forms. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 16, 2561, 1990.
- Enauyatifard R., Azadbakht M., Fadakar Y.: Assessment of Ferula gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations. Acta Pol. Pharm. Res., 69(2), 291, 2012.
- Esezobo S, Zubair S, Pilpel N. Effects of tapioca obtained from cassava (Manihot utilissima) on the disintegration and dissolution rates of paracetamol tablets. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 41(1), 7, 1989.
- Ferrari F. et al.: Investigation on Bonding and disintegration properties of pharmaceutical materials. Int. J. Pharm., 136, 71, 1996.
- Fell J.T., Newton J. M.: Determination of tablet stength by diametralcompression test. J. Pharm. Sci., 59(5), 688, 1970.
- Georget D. M. R., Parker R., Smith A. C.: A study of the effect of water content on the compaction behaviour of breakfast cereal flakes. Powder Tech., 81,189, 1994.
- Guyot-Hermann A. M: The disintegration and disintegrating agent. S.T.P.-Pharma Sci. 2(6), 445, 1992.
- Heckel R.W.: An analysis of powder compaction behavior. Trans. Metallurgical Society AIME., 221, 1001, 1961.
- Itiola O. A.: Compressional characteristics of three starches and the mechanical properties of their tablets. Pharm. World J., 8(3), 91, 1991.
- Itiola O. A., Pilpel N.: Formulation effects on the mechanical properties of metronidazole tablets. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 43, 145, 1991.
- Joneja S. K. et al.: Investigating the fundamental effects of binders on pharmaceutical tablet performance. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 25, 29, 1999.
- Kalu V. D., Odeniyi M. A., Jaiyeoba K. T.: Sustained release of a water-soluble drug from directly compressed okra gum matrix tablets. East Central African J. Pharm. Sci. 9(2), 46, 2006.
- Kalu, V.D., Odeniyi, M.A., Jaiyeoba, K. T. Matrix properties of a new plant gum in controlled drug delivery. Arch. Pharmacal Res., 30(7), 884, 2007.
- Kawakita K., Lüdde K. H. Some considerations on powder compression equations. Powder Tech., 4, 61, 1970/71.
- Kitazawa S., et al.: Effects of hardness on the disintegration and dissolution rate of uncoated caffeine tablets. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 27(10), 765, 1975.
- Luangtana-Ana M, Fell J T.: Bonding mechanisms in tabletting. Int. J. Pharm., 60, 197, 1990.
- Noyes A. A., Whitney W. R.: The rate of solution of solid substances in their own solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 19, 930, 1897.
- Odeniyi M. A., Jaiyeoba K. T.: Influence of hydrophilic polymers on the physicochemical stability of ascorbic acid tablets. Farmacia, 55(5), 479, 2007.
- Odeniyi M. A., Babalola A. O., Ayorinde J. O.: Evaluation of Cedrela gum as a binder and bio-adhesive component in ibuprofen tablet formulations. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 49(1), 95, 2013.
- Rees J. E., Rue P. J.: Time dependent deformation of some direct compression excipients. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 30(10), 601, 1978.
- Uphradasta S. M., Katikaneni P. R., Nuessle N. O.: Chitosan as a tablet binder. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm., 18(15), 1701, 1992.
- Zhao J., Burt H. M., Miller R. A.: The Gurnham equation in characterizing the compressibility of pharmaceutical materials. Int. J. Pharm., 317, 109, 2006.
- Zubair S., Esezobo S., Pilpel N.: The effects of interacting variables on the tensile strength, disintegration and dissolution of paracetamol tablets. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 40, 278, 1988.