Current Issues of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

Comparison of agarose gel and capillary electro phoresis for the characterization of serum monoclonal paraproteins

Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences Vol. 26, No. 3, Pages 299-304


Department of Biochemistry Diagnostics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

DOI: 10.12923/j.2084-980X/26.3/a.13



Serum protein electrophoresis is an especially useful method to detect and semi-quantify monoclonal proteins in patients with multiple myeloma and other plasmocyte dyscrasias. The presence of monoclonal protein (M protein) in electrophoretic separation is indicated by a sharp spike in gamma-globulin fraction that is sometimes located in alpha-2-globulins and beta-globulins. 
Semi-quantification of M protein is a basic method to monitor therapy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). The purpose of the study was to compare concentrations of M protein obtained by agarose gel (AGE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and to evaluate diagnostic usefulness of both electrophoretic techniques for the identification of M protein. The investigations were carried out in the group of 90 patients with monoclonal gammopathies, 42 females and 48 males aged 65±9 years. Patients with monoclonal gammopathies had lower concentrations of monoclonal proteins determined by AGE in comparison to CE. High positive correlation between the results of monoclonal protein concentrations obtained by AGE and CE was observed. Both AGE and CE seem to be equally useful diagnostically in the detection of paraproteins.

Files to download


monoclonal proteins (M protein), agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE), capillary electrophoresis (CE), monoclonal gammopathy


  1. Attaelmannan M., Levinson S.S.: Understanding and identifying monoclonal gammopathies. Clin. Chem., 46, 1230, 2000.
  2. Avet-Loiseau H. et al.: Serum immunoglobulin heavy/light chain ratios are independent risk factors for predicting progression free survival in multiple myeloma. Haematologica, 95, 395 (abstract 0953), 2010.
  3. Bakker A.J., Elderman-van der Werf C., van Abbema T.: Detection and quantification of M-proteinemia: comparison of various methods for serum protein electrophoresis. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 50, 77, 2011.
  4. Barlow I.M., Kemp M.L.: Evaluation of the Sebia Capillarys zone electrophoresis system for monoclonal paraprotein analysis. Br. J. Biomed. Sci., 67, 150, 2010.
  5. Bossuyt X. et al.: Serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation by a semiautomated electrophoresis system. Clin. Chem., 44, 944, 1998.
  6. Bossuyt X. et al.: Automated serum protein electrophoresis by Capillarys. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 41, 704, 2003.
  7. Bossuyt X., Mariën G.: False-negative results in detection of monoclonal proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis: a prospective study. Clin. Chem., 47, 1477, 2001.
  8. Bossuyt X. et al.: Serum protein electrophoresis by CZE 2000 clinical capillary electrophoresis system. Clin. Chem., 44, 749, 1998.
  9. Bossuyt X.: Separation of serum proteins by automated capillary zone electrophoresis. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 41, 762, 2003.
  10. Bossuyt X. et al.: Detection and classification of paraproteins by capillary immunofixation/subtraction. Clin. Chem., 44, 760, 1998.
  11. Chartier C. et al.: Evaluation of two automated capillary electrophoresis systems for human serum protein analysis. Clin. Biochem., 44, 1473, 2011.
  12. Dimopoulos M. et al.: Consensus recommendations for standard investigative workup: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 3. Blood. 117, 4701, 2011.
  13. Dmoszyńska A. et al.: Guidelines of Polish Myeloma Group concerning diagnosis and therapy of multiple myeloma and other plasmacytic dyscrasias for 2013. Acta Haematol. Pol., 44, 3, 2013.
  14. Durie B.G. et al.: International uniform response criteria for multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 20, 1467, 2006.
  15. Gay-Bellile C. et al.: Automated Multicapillary Electrophoresis for Analysis of Human Serum Proteins. Clin. Chem., 49, 1909, 2003.
  16. Henskens Y. et al.: Detection and identification of monoclonal gammopathies by capillary electrophoresis. Clin. Chem., 44, 1184, 1998.
  17. Katzel J.A., Hari P., Vesole D.H.: Multiple myeloma: charging toward a bright future. CA Cancer. J. Clin., 57, 301, 2007.
  18. Katzmann J.A. et al.: Prospective study of serum protein capillary zone electrophoresis and immunotyping of monoclonal proteins by immunosubtraction. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 110, 503, 1998.
  19. Kyle R.A., Rajkumar S.V.: Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Haematol., 18, 689, 2005.
  20. Kyle R.A. et al.: A long-term study of prognosis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N. Engl. J. Med., 346, 564, 2002.
  21. Ludwig H. et al.: Immunoglobulin heavy/light chain ratios improve paraprotein detection and monitoring, identify residual disease and correlate with survival in multiple myeloma patients. Leukemia. 27, 213, 2013.
  22. Mariën G. et al.: Clinical Capillary Zone Electrophoresis of Serum Proteins: Balancing High Sensitivity and High Specificity. Clin. Chem., 49, 1419, 2003.
  23. McCudden C.R. et al.: Performance comparison of capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis for the identification and characterization of monoclonal immunoglobulins. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 129, 451, 2008.
  24. Mussap M. et al.: Measurement of serum monoclonal components: comparison between densitometry and capillary zone electrophoresis. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 44, 609, 2006.
  25. Mussap M. et al.: Evaluation of a new capillary zone electrophoresis system for the identification and typing of Bence Jones protein. Clin. Biochem., 39, 152, 2006.
  26. Rajkumar S.V. et al.: Consensus recommendations for the uniform reporting of clinical trials: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 1. Blood. 117, 4691, 2011.
  27. Roudiere L. et al.: Evaluation of a capillary zone electrophoresis system versus a conventional agaroze gel system for routine serum protein separation and monoclonal component typing. Clin. Lab., 52, 19, 2006.
  28. Salkie M.L.: A retrospective study of the relative utility of electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, immunofixation, and nephelometry in the investigation of serum proteins. Clin Biochem., 29, 39, 1996.
  29. Tate J., Mollee P., Johnson R.: Monoclonal gammopathies-clinical and laboratory issues. Clin. Biochem. Rev., 30, 89, 2009.
  30. Wang H. et al.: Laboratory characterizations on 2007 cases of monoclonal gammopathies in East China. Cell. Mol. Immunol., 5, 293, 2008.
  31. Yang Z. et al.: Performance of the Sebia CAPILLARYS 2 for detection and immunotyping of serum monoclonal paraproteins. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 128, 293, 2007.
prev next



April 2020

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
    01 02 03 04 05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30