Current Issues of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

The effectiveness of novel antiepileptic drugs: levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide in the treatment of ...

Annales UMCS, Sectio DDD, Pharmacia, Vol. XXIV, N 4, 2

ANTONINA MAZUR, SYLWIA FIDECKA

Chair and Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The effectiveness of novel antiepileptic drugs: levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide in the treatment of addictions

 

It is commonly known that standard therapy of addiction still brings a high ratio of failures. According to the most recent studies, anticonvulsant drugs offer a novel approach in the treatment of dependence disorders. In this paper, four new antiepileptic drugs levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide were reviewed considering their activity in various types of addiction. Collected data have shown that levetiracetam and zonisamide are promising drugs in the treatment of alcohol addiction and alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and in prevention of alcohol overuse. Pregabalin, first of all has sucessfully reduced benzodiazepine abuse, in addition to giving encouraging effects in the management of alcohol addiction and withdrawal. However, tiagabine has revealed its effectiveness mainly in the treatment of cocaine addiction, and as show preliminary studies, in nicotine dependence and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide exert antidependence effects in different ways due to various modes of action. One of the most probable, and present in at least three reviewed drugs, mechanism of antidependence action is facilitation of GABA-ergic inhibitory transmission, which in turn through modulation of dopaminergic neurons in mesolimbic system, reduces the rewarding properties of psychostimulants. Based on recent studies, levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide are prospective drugs in the therapy of dependence. However, further investigation to confirm and supplement previous findings is needed.

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Keywords

antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam, pregabalin, tiagabine, zonisamide, dependence

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